Haeger argued the Marco Polo might not have visited Southern China due to the lack of details in his description of southern Chinese cities compared to northern ones, while Herbert Franke also raised the possibility that Marco Polo might not have been to China at all, and wondered if he might have based his accounts on Persian sources due to his use of Persian expressions.
Translated and edited by William Marsden, re-edited by Thomas Wright. The Polos remained in the Mongol court in Shang-tu and in Beijing, serving as advisors to the Khan, for seventeen years. Skeptics also point to striking omissions of certain things in the book that any visitor to China would certainly have seen and would have been noteworthy, such as the Great Wall, chopsticks, calligraphy, foot binding, and tea drinking.
Such forces include the curiosity of new ideas of the East, the foreseen potential for trade of technologies between the two cultures, geographical influence of desire of discovery of the capabilities of acquiring unattainable resources and products due to the vast lands that separate the two cultures, and lastly, economic and social interactions between the East and West.
It was Benedetto who identified Rustichello da Pisa as the original compiler or amanuensisand his established text has provided the basis for many modern translations: Marco Polo earned the nickname Marco il Milione, suggesting that Marco was a man who invented a million stories.
They were able to develop their military weapons from steel weapons and hand-combat weapons to more advanced arms.
Marco would spend three years in prison, where he would meet fellow prisoner and Italian romance writer Rustichello da Pisa. This was a premature thought though, for they did not even know of the existence of China and the Mongol Empire, which were much more complex societies than Europe was.
It would not be uncommon for a traveler to exaggerate or embellish his adventures and it would also not be unusual for the writer to take his own liberties on the tale to encourage sales. The Chinese Empire had been a strong power with a well developed culture since the time of the Roman Empireand there was active trade between the two empires along a 4,mile 6,km caravan route, known as the Silk Road.
Seal of the Mongol ruler Ghazan in a letter to Pope Boniface VIIIwith an inscription in Chinese seal script Omissions Skeptics have long wondered if Marco Polo wrote his book based on hearsay, with some pointing to omissions about noteworthy practices and structures of China as well as the lack of details on some places in his book.
Yule-Cordier translation Volume 2, Gutenburg Project: Maps of Asia were based on his descriptions until the sixteenth century, and many of the ventures of the Age of Exploration of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, including the voyages of Christopher Columbuswere inspired by the "Travels.
At the time of the book, most Europeans knew very little about China and many Europeans believed fantastical things such as that some Chinese had heads like dogs and that mythological beasts such as unicorns, dragons, and giant serpents roamed there.
Soon after they set out from Acre, the two monks, afraid of the dangers ahead, turned back, leaving the Polos to proceed alone. They traveled first to Acre in Palestine where they learned that their friend Teobaldo had been elected pope as Gregory X. This book was not immediately able to "brainwash" people into exploring the unknown, but over time, it grew on people.
Which Side is Correct? He deemed it as "good".
I was very interested in learning more about this famous man and will share what I found during my research about the man, his amazing travels, and the legacy of Marco Polo.
Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Nov. Haw however argued that many of the "omissions" could be explained. Marco, who had been seventeen when he left home, was now forty-one years old.
Marco became ill in the desert but recovered in the cool regions of Afghanistan. Unfortunately, the party was soon attacked by banditswho used the cover of a sandstorm to ambush them. In any case, it served to excite Europeans about the riches in trade and culture which might be found in unfamiliar areas of the world and to encourage them to venture out in search of them.
While the Italian missionary Odoric of Pordenone who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding it is however unclear whether he was only relaying something he heard as his description is inaccurate no other foreign visitors to Yuan China mentioned the practice, perhaps an indication that the footbinding was not widespread or was not practiced in an extreme form at that time.
Since it was published before the printing press, each copy had to be hand-reproduced, and changes in the original content undoubtedly occurred during this process.
He also told partially erroneous self-aggrandizing tales about warfare, commerce, geography, court intrigues and the sexual practices of the people who lived under Mongol rule. They had also subjugated Russia and threatened Europe as well.
Polo wrote of five-masted ships, when archaeological excavations found that the ships in fact had only three masts. The famous Venetian is believed to have left Venice at age 17 to embark on a year journey through the Persian Gulf and Asia, spending much of this time in China in the court of the great Mongol emperor Kublai Khan.
They had been robbed on the trip back from China, losing much of the wealth they had accumulated in the service of the Mongol Empire, but they managed to bring back ivory, jade, jewels, porcelain, and silk as proof of their tales of China and the Far East.
Is His Story True? After safely escorting the princess, they learn that Kublai Khan has died and the Polos return home to Venice in In fact, there are well over one hundred different manuscript versions.
Although Polo was not able to bring much westernization to China himself, he invoked a desire to future Europeans to engage in Eastern interactions.Marco Polo was one of the first and most famous Europeans to travel to Asia during the Middle Ages. He traveled farther than any of his predecessors during his year journey along the Silk Road, reaching China and Mongolia, where he became a confidant of Kublai Khan.
Marco Polo's travels may have had some influence on the development of European cartography, ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later. Marco Polo changed the world by writing a book about his travels from Venice to the court of Kublai Khan in China.
His account of his journeys inspired other adventurers, such as the explorer Christopher Columbus, who always carried a copy of Polo's book. Maps he brought back helped to develop. Marco Polo can be attributed to being the spark for the Age of Exploration.
His book "The Travels of Marco Polo", proved to be the most influential factor in the. Book of the Marvels of the World (French: Livre des Merveilles du Monde) or Description of the World (Devisement du Monde), in Italian Il Milione (The Million) or Oriente Poliano and in English commonly called The Travels of Marco Polo, is a 13th-century travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing Polo's travels through Asia between andand his.
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